You will take a good look at spyware, the activities it performs, different types of spyware, and the countermeasures needed in order to prevent hackers from utilizing these types of techniques against your company. You will also spend time studying different types of keyloggers. There are three different types of keyloggers that we see used in today's environments: hardware, software, and kernel/driver keyloggers. A good pen tester or ethical hacker cannot perform his or her job properly without understanding the countermeasures for all of the hacking techniques used against today's computer systems. Overall, these topics will help prepare you for certification exams from vendors, such as Linux, CompTIA, and EC-Council.